Sunday, January 25, 2015

Timelines of events in Canadian and Welsh history (LBE)

Time for a history lesson!

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Canadian history timeline:

30,000–10,000 BC - Prehistoric hunters cross over into Canada from Asia.

Circa 1000 AD - Leif Ericsson leads a Viking expedition to the New World.

1451 - The Iroquois Confederacy is formed.

1496 - March 5: King Henry VII of England granted John Cabot the right to 'seek islands and countries of the heathen towards the west, east, and north' sailing under the English flag.

1497 - May 2: John Cabot embarked on his ship, the Matthew, to explore the lands across the Atlantic, hoping to find a north west passage to the Indies and China. John Cabot and his son Sebastian were the first Europeans to discover Canada, landing on the coast of Newfoundland.

1534 - Jacques Cartier discovers the Great Lakes and the the St. Lawrence River.

1603 - March 15: Samuel de Champlain set sail for Quebec from Honfleur, France following in the path of Jacques Cartier to the St Lawrence River and Tadoussac.

1605 - Samuel de Champlain establishes the first successful New France Colony at Port Royal.

1670 - The Hudson's Bay Company established.

1672 - New France expansion into Canada under Louis de Frontenac.

1755 - Expulsion of the Acadians.

1758 - French power in Canada declines as the British capture Ft. Louisburg.

1759 - Battle on the Plains of Abraham.

1763 - New France is formally ceded to Britain; Pontiac Rebellion erupts.

1778 - Captain James Cooke explores the West Coast.

1783 - Loyalist refugees begin arriving after the American Revolution.

1791 - Constitutional Act establishes Upper & Lower Canada.

1812-1814 - War of 1812: American invasion of Upper Canada in the summer of 1812 centring around the Great Lakes and the Canadian frontier.

1821 - North West Company established.

1837–1838 - Rebellions against British rule in Upper and Lower Canada.

1840 - Act of Union.

1848 - Responsible government is won, first in Nova Scotia, then in Canada.

1866 - The Fenian Raid and Battle of Ridgeway.

1867 - Dominion of Canada was formed and self-government was granted to Ontario (formerly Upper Canada), Quebec (formerly Lower Canada), New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.

1870 - Red River Resistance; province of Manitoba is created.

1871, 1873 - B.C. and P.E.I. join Canada.

1873 - North-West Mounted Police ( Mounties) established.

1885 - Canadian Pacific Railway Completed.

1885 - North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance or the Saskatchewan Rebellion.

1898 - Klondike Gold Rush.

1899 - Boer War.

1905 - The provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan are created.

1914-1918 - World War I.

1916 - Women win the vote in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta.

1919 - The Winnipeg General Strike.

1929–1939 - The Great Depression.

1939–1945 - World War II.

1949 - Newfoundland joins Canada.

1950–1953 - Korean War.

1959 - St. Lawrence Seaway (major transportation route) officially opens.

1960 - Quiet Revolution: Rise of Quebec Separation Sentiment.

1967 - Canada’s 100th birthday; Expo 67 World’s Fair in Montréal.

1970 - October Crisis: political kidnappings, Ottawa suspends civil rights.

1970 - War Measures Act Proclaimed on Quebec.

1980 - Québec referendum on “sovereignty-association” defeated 60% to 40%.

1982 - Constitution comes home — with a Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

1987–1990 - Meech Lake Accord is put forward — and collapses.

1992 - Charlottetown Accord is rejected by a national referendum.

1995 - Québec referendum on sovereignty is narrowly defeated.

1999 - The new Arctic territory of Nunavut is created.

2000 - Clarity Bill outlines the terms of Québec separation.

2003 - Canada says “no” to joining the war in Iraq.

2005 - Former PM Jean Chrétien and sitting PM Paul Martin testify at the Gomery Inquiry.

2010 - Canada sets record for gold medals at the Vancouver Winter Olympic Games.

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Welsh history timeline:

1000 BC - Hill forts built during Iron Age.

500-100 BC - Celts settled in Wales.

43 AD - Romans invaded Britain.

78 - Romans conquered Wales.

100 - Irish raiders settled southwestern Wales.

500 - Saxons invaded Wales.

516 - Battle of Mount Badon stopped the aggressive expansion of the Saxons.

784 Saxon King of Mercia, built Offa's Dyke, created boundary between England and Wales.

1040 - First Prince of Wales, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, secured borders.

1063 - English invaded; Gruffydd ap Llywelyn killed.

1066 - Normans invaded; King Harold of England killed; Marcher Lordships established on Wales' borders.

1215 - Magna Carta signed.

1276-1277 - First Welsh independence war.

1277 - Treaty of Aberconwy signed, ended war; Edward I began building castles.

1282-1283 - Second Welsh independence war.

1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan ended war; Wales incorporated into England; new counties created.

1301 - King Edward I bestowed title "Prince of Wales" upon son, Edward II.

1349 - Black Death swept across country, 40% of population died.

1400-1410 - Third war of independence led by Owain Glyndwr against England.

1402 - Laws passed prohibiting Welsh from gathering, holding office, carrying arms and living in forts.

1410 - King Henry IV supressed Welsh rebellion; the long war against England ended.

1455 - War of Roses began in England.

1485 - War of Roses ended; Henry Tudor (Henry VII) became first Welsh King of England.

1536 - Henry VIII enacted Act of Union; began dissolution of monasteries.

1563 - Bible published in Welsh language.

1642 - Civil War broke out in England.

1644 - The Battle of Montgomery was the first battle during Civil War in Wales.

1651 - Battle of Worcester ended Civil War; Charles I executed; Charles II exiled.

1750 - Industrial Age began; Wales became largest producer of iron and copper in the world.

1800 - First of great Welsh canals built.

1811 - Wales became non-conformist nation, broke with the Church of England.

1831 - Merthy Uprising sparked by workers in debt; troops brought in, more than 24 citizens died.

1839 - Rebecca Riots occurred, toll gates destroyed in protest against high fees.

1850's - Coal fields in South Wales developed.

1867 - Great Reform Act gave vote to male householders; Welsh Liberal Party formed.

1891 - U.S. passed McKinley Tariff, caused severe financial blow to Welsh industry.

1900-1903 - Strike at Penrhyn Slate Quarry longest labor dispute in history; 3000 workers walked out.

1913 - Explosion at Senghenydd's Lancaster Pit killed 439 miners.

1916 - Lloyd George first Welshman to become British prime minister.

1925 - National Party (Plaid Cymru) founded.

1934 - Explosion and fire killed 266 miners at Gresford.

1955 - Cardiff became capital of Wales.

1966 - Slag pile collapsed on school at Aberfan, 144 children and teachers killed.

1977 - National Party (Plaid Cymru) founded.

1978 - Welsh Act introduced in favor of government assembly for Wales.

1979 - Welsh Act defeated.

1984 - Year-long miner's strike virtually ended coal industry in the country.

1996 - Sea Empress grounded off Wales in heavy sea, spilled over 18 million gallons of oil.

1997 - 1997 Referendum passed, gave Wales assembly in government.

1999 - Tony Blair, British prime minister, opened Welsh national assembly (first self government in over 600 years).

2001 - Thousands of sheep tested positive for foot-and-mouth disease were slaughtered.

2004 - Fox hunting in Britain (including Wales) outlawed by British government.

2005 - Charles, Prince of Wales, married Camilla Parker Bowles.

2007 - Snow storms caused schools, businesses to close, over 500 people trapped in cars; smoking ban for all enclosed public spaces went into effect.

2008 - Last deep mine, the Tower Colliery in South Wales, closed; customs officials recovered 22 million counterfeit cigarettes in container from Dubai.

2010 - Unemployment rate in Wales higher than any other home country at 9.2%; Cheryl Gillan became first woman to hold post of Secretary of State for Wales.

2011 - Prince William of Wales married Catherine Middleton.

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Sources:
http://www.datesandevents.org/places-timelines/09-canadian-history-timeline.htm
http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/a-timeline-of-important-events-in-canadian-history.html
http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/europe/wales/ukwtimeln.htm

5 comments:

AliceKay said...

You shared lots of historical events. Isn't it amazing what happens over time?

Victoria Zigler said...

AK:
Absolutely! It's amazing how much things change, and interesting how the events that happened in the past have shaped and changed us (unfortunately not always for the better).

Rita said...

Goodness! What brought this on? That's a lot to absorb. :) :)

Intense Guy said...

I've often wondered about the history of Canada - it took them a while to become a "country" coast to coast - and they are a wonderful people.

I think one could spend a lifetime learning and reading about Welsh history - there is so much of it!!!

Smiles.

Victoria Zigler said...

Rita:
*Shrugs* I dunno. It was just one of those things I randomly decided to look up when I couldn't sleep and didn't feel like doing other things. Happens from time to time.

Iggy:
Yes, there's a lot of Welsh history to learn about if you're interested in doing so. That's why most people either just scratch the surface of events, or focus on one time period, I think.

Well, wonder no more... Now you know some Canadian history! :)